The split graft is applied on ornamental or fruit plants to graft a more valuable species onto a less valuable species; they are generally used as rootstocks and scions of similar or comparable size and are practiced in late winter or early spring, when the buds begin to swell.
Traditionally, the entire upper part of the stem or the graft-holding branch is cut, so a split is made in the rootstock branch, about 4-5 cm deep, trying to make the split well in the middle of the branch or stem.
The scion must already be lignified, then taken from branches that are at least one year old, with well swollen and healthy buds; under the first bud we will have to leave more or less so much wood as it is deep the gap in the rootstock, after having practiced on the graft oblique cuts so as to obtain a pointed and smooth apex, with the greatest quantity of exposed live wood.
We proceed by inserting the scion into the gap, inserting it up to the first bud; then we secure the rootstock to the rootstock by tightly tying the rootstock with wet raffia or with appropriate grafting thread; to avoid the onset of diseases we cover the exposed part of live wood with putty mastic.
The split graft can also be practiced in different ways, with incisions in the scion and it is grafted with particular shapes; the important thing is that the two cuts, that is the one made in the graft and the one made in the rootstock, are complementary, and that the approach of the two parts leads to a smooth and compact surface.